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What is PCB Board? Let’s Know in Depth.

PCB Board stands for Printed Circuit Board. PCB board is a mechanical board which connects and supports all electrical components. These components combine with lots of pads, conductive tracks, and other stuff and links to many layers of copper sheets.

The electrical components are soldered on to this PCB Board so that both mechanically as well as electrically it stays attached with this circuit board. PCB Boards mostly need for electronic products which are very simple. Besides that, they also need for electronic products such as switch boxes, RC cars, lightbox sockets, etc.

You are not clear enough about the PCB Board. Well! Lots of people will also face the same problem, and they will ask for the complete idea about what is PCB Board? But to be honest, I will define more and elaborate widely about this topic in this article. So if you are interested, let’s not waste much time, and jump to the depth of PCB Boards.

Depth Details of “PCB Board”

Functionalities

The central, fundamental part of electronics is the PCB Board. Though it is the most necessary part of electronics yet, people forget to mention the details about PCB Board. Sometimes, if you ask any electrician about what is PCB Board? They will reply in short that it is just an electronic board to attach multiple electronic components.

Well! They don’t know the depth of the PCB Board. But from now on, you will not face any difficulty in elaborating and give someone the complete thought about PCB Board as I am mentioning all the depth details about this. And if you read this article, you will gather the full knowledge about the PCB Board.

To start with the PCB Board, I want to begin step by step process from the beginning of the PCB Board to the use of PCB Board. A combination of multiple materials makes up this PCB Boards. And these materials are also used for various purposes in these boards. So let’s get started with the elements:

RoHS Adaptable PCB Board

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As you know, the use of lead bans from using in the user compatible items. RoHS stands for Restriction of Hazardous Substances. Therefore, the PCB Board that must sell out should be RoHS-adaptable. Therefore, it proves that you cannot use Lead while manufacturing the PCB Board.

The circuit board should not include any use of lead. The solder used in the PCB Board should also be lead-free. And all the mounted components of the circuit board needs to be free of mercury, lead, cadmium and any other types of heavy materials.

Mostly Used Substrates

There are lot of substrates used in building the PCB Boards. But sometimes some substrates are used very rarely whereas; some are most in common. The most commonly used substrates are:

  • Metalcore board or Aluminum are most common in the PCB Board. The aluminum board is skinny and dielectric which also includes the thermal conductivity. Aluminum is the most useful for the parts cooling characteristics.

The usage of Aluminium is in the power switches as well as LEDs. These components are laminated in for better cooling.

  • Paper of Phenolic Cotton or Phenolic Paper, FR-2. The usage of these papers is in consumer electronics which has boards of single side only. The general rate of FR-2 is about 105-degree Celsius.
  • FR-4 is fiberglass includes an epoxy resin. It also includes better insulating properties, absorption of low water and very precise at arc resistance. The general rate of FR-4 is 130-degree Celsius.
  • Flexible Substrates, these substrates are laminated with the thin stiffener. These substrates also include the Kapton or UPILEX, a foil of polyimide, as well as Pyralux.
  • FR-1, FR-2, punchable at the room temperature, almost same to cardboard, the rated grades are 130-degree Celsius, 150-degree Celsius specified little resistance of moisture as well as arc resistance.
  • FR-3, with the epoxy the paper of cotton is impregnated, and they rates to around 150-degrees Celsius.
  • FR-5 includes the fiberglass of woven as well as the epoxy, provides extreme strength at extreme temperatures. 170-degree Celsius specified.
  • FR-6 includes the polyester as well as the matte glass.

Laminates

Laminates are healed by the under temperature or pressure of paper or cloth along with the thermoset resin. Therefore, it forms into a thick uniform of the essential final piece. Laminates mainly used in between the sheets of copper which attach and holds the multiple electrical components altogether. The average thickness of laminates which is very standard is ANSI/IPC-D–275.

Special Substrate Parameters

PCB Board substrates are materials of a dielectric composite. These composite materials involve reinforcements, matrix and sometimes filler can also be included in the resin. Over here, reinforcements include both the woven as well as the non-oven materials. Both of them different functionality and different requirements.

Woven reinforcements are remarkably cheaper, but the glass of high dielectric is not suitable for it. Whereas the nonwoven reinforcements are extremely low, you can say no reinforcements, are a bit more expensive but it more compatible and more ideal with the applications of RF or analog.

There are much more materials which are useful for the PCB Board. But yet, those materials are not used every time. In short, elements like the G-10, G-11, CEM-1, CEM-2, CEM-3, CEM-4, CEM-5, PTFE (Teflon), RF-35, Alumina, Polyamide, etc. are also essential for PCB Board, but not every time.

The Composition of PCB Board

Well! Till now you have got a good idea about what are the materials most useful for the PCB Boards. Now, let’s jump to the fact about the compositions of the PCB Boards. Over there, you will get a better idea and more elaborate information relevant to the PCB Boards.

PCB Board contains multiple layers of materials laminated all together. They stay laminated with the adhesive as well as heat in such a way that all the elements make combined make it a single object.

The PCB Board consists of 4 several types of materials which include copper, the substrate (FR4), solder mask, silkscreen. Do you know what they are? Any idea about those materials? Well! If no, then follow the next lines of this article. Over here, I mentioned every element of this composition of PCB Board. So let’s go:

FR4

As the substrate or the base material is fiberglass, therefore, the best designator for the fiberglass is the FR4. FR4 is mainly used to make the thick PCB Board and also gives that PCB its rigidity.

You will also find lots of PCBs built with the plastic of high-temperature, and they are very flexible, such as Kapton or equivalent to that. There are lots of thick PCBs, but in common the most used one is for the SparkFun products which are about 1.6mm. Cheaper PCB Boards are made up of the phenolics or other epoxies which lastly destroys the durability of FR4.

It will cause a lot of delaminating, char and will release a lot of smoke when you are soldering iron on the board. Therefore, you will face a lot of problems while working with those PCB Board.

Copper

On top of the FR4, the next layer is copper. The copper stays laminated on the top surface of the FR4 with the adhesive as well as heat. In case of the double-sided of the PCB Boards, the copper is present on both the sides of those substrates.

On cheaper electronics, the PCB Board may contain copper only in one side. Just remember that, when you will be going for the double-sided PCB Board, the layers of coppers will also be present on both sides.

On the other hand, you can also measure the thickness of the copper by its weight. Copper weighs by measuring the ounces per every square foot. There are some PCB Boards which can handle about 2 to 3 ounce of copper, where each ounce holds up to 35 micrometers per square of an inch.

Soldermask

On top of the copper foil, there is another layer. Can you guess which one is that? Yeah! Exactly, that is the layer of the solder mask. Soldermask is the exact material or coating which gives the PCB Board a green color. This layer protects the copper traces so that even by mistake it doesn’t touch the metal parts, conductive bits or solders.

Soldermask allows the user to do the solder on the exact correct place so that the user can prevent the jumpers of the weld. Well! Then let me rewind once again. Solder mask is merely a thin polymer layer on top of the copper traces.

On the other hand, do you know the different name of the Solder mask? Soldermask is also known as the solder stop mask, or solder mask or solder resist. By the way, don’t worry about the name. The name doesn’t matter; functionality is what matters.

Silkscreen

Silkscreen is a printmaking technique which uses on the top layer of the solder mask. In this printing technique numbers, symbols, as well as sometimes letters, were also used. Well! These indications help the PCB Board allow the easiest to assemble and very friendly to human users.

Do you know? The indicators on the silkscreen layer are mostly used to show the functionality and purpose of the LED’s pin. Still, you can’t recognize the silkscreen layer? Did you spot the white ink letters, numbers or symbols on the PCB Board? Yes! Those words stay on the silkscreen layer. Though you can use various ink color on this layer, red, green, yellow and black is now available in the shop, so it is not a big deal.

Now, those people who are inquiring about what is PCB Board? I hope now you have gathered enough knowledge and idea about the PCB Board. In this section, I mentioned the composition of the PCB Board, the layers used in the PCB Board and the functionality of them.

The Terminology of a PCB Board

In this section, I will hold up the phraseology of the PCB Board and the proper usages of them. In short, you can say that over here you will get to know some terms of the PCB Board.

These terms will help you in future when you need the PCB Board, or you will be working with the PCB Board. So let’s get started:

Annular Ring – Annular Ring is the holes of copper plated in a PCB Board

Drill Hit

The white drilled holes on the PCB Board is the drill hits work. Sometimes the dull bit causes the in-accurate drilled holes which creates a lot of issues while manufacturing.

Mouse Bits

Mouse bites are the replacements of the of the V-score, which mainly used for separating the panel board. Lots of drill hits are applied to create a free spot of a PCB Board where the board can be broken very smoothly and efficiently, in the case when you need to cut the board.

Paste Stencil

A thin piece of the stencil which is needed to deposit the solder paste in a particular area. Paste stencil allows not to spread out the solder paste whole around the PCB Board.

Plane

A plane in a PCB Board which you can recognize by the copper blocks. You will find them bordering around some components or mechanical rays of the PCB Boards. The plane is also known as the ‘Pour.’

Pogo Pin

Pogo pin is the spring based contact which uses for the temporary connections. These temporary connections are mostly made while practicing or testing or trying the programming languages.

Slot

Slots are the non-circle holes on a PCB Board. These slots take extra time to cut on those PCB Board because they are not circular.

Trace

The continuous ray or path of the copper layer on a PCB Board is mainly known as the Trace.

Wave Solder

Wave solder is used to expose the leads of any components or the pads. It is a process of soldering on the PCB Board with the parts of the through-hole. Then the board is passed for standing over the molten solder wave.

V-Score

V-score helps to straighten the board very quickly and break the board following a straight line. It is also known as the partial cut.

Pad

Pad is the exposed metal portion on the top surface of a PCB Board. Here, the electrical components will be soldered.

Over here, I mentioned the most useful terms of PCB Board. People quickly get confused about these terms. Therefore, I said all these confusing terms with best easy definitions so that you can understand them very quickly. And these things will surely need in the future when you are working with the PCB Board.

Wrapping Up the Text

People who are facing difficulties with the PCB Boards or who are asking again and again that, What is PCB Board? For them, this article will be the best choice to know the acknowledgments of PCB Boards completely. If you read the full article, now you can ask yourself that, Is there anything left about the PCB Board?

As you will be reading this article regarding the PCB Board, it proves that you may need one PCB Board or you may start working with this. Now for that, I am giving you the best suggestion that UY SYS will be the best choice for you. They have an expert team to deal with the PCB. I hope my opinion and guideline will help you a lot.

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